How does an electric hammer drill

How to work a puncher, they know the professionals. This tool is designed for drilling holes in concrete and other hard materials. For the generation of impact in the punch (in contrast to the drill), the corresponding pneumatic mechanism, which includes an intermediate shaft, barrel, piston, cylinder and striker, is responsible. You should first find out how the tool itself works.

Diagram of the external part of the punch

Diagram of the external part of the punch.

Constituent elements

The drive of the unit transmits rotational motion from the motor to the shaft. Compared with the mechanism of the drill, the percussion hammer system is more complicated. Consumers who rarely have to use such tools can get by with the first unit - it is suitable for drilling and crushing bricks and soft concrete.

Uncompromising drilling of surfaces from durable materials is available to owners of perforators. The equipment allows you to quickly deal with tasks that have more simple analogues take more time. Purpose of the punch depends on the class. The considered unit allows:

  • cleave cement layers;
  • beat ceramic tiles;
  • destroy the road bed.
Diagram of the internal part of the punch

Diagram of the internal part of the punch.

It is more accurately recommended to select models, focusing on the task, the degree of complexity and the required diameter.

Manufacturers offer a wide range of products that can be drilled, chiselled, drilled with a punch and have 3 modes of operation. The latter function is characteristic of lightweight drills only.

Heavier machines have no surface drilling function.

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Tool classification

The perforator's belonging to a particular class is determined by its functionality and executable tasks. By class, these units are distributed, focusing on their weight. Experts identify the following classes:

  • light;
  • average;
  • heavy.

The first class is represented by instruments whose weight does not exceed 4 kg. They are used by non-professionals in everyday life. The power of the device reaches 400-700 W, and the impact energy does not exceed 3 J. With their help it is possible to drill holes of small diameter in the concrete (for dowels). The presented models are used as a screwdriver. The lightweight punch makes more kicks and turns, but with less force.

The middle class is represented by equipment weighing 5-8 kg. The impact energy in certain models is able to reach 8 J. They can be used on reinforced structures if concrete is to be broken and the metal gratings are chopped.

Kinds of nozzles for perforators

Kinds of nozzles for perforators.

The heavy class is represented by machines weighing more than 8 kg and with a capacity of 1200-1500 W, which are capable of making holes with a diameter of up to 50 mm with a solid drill and over 120 mm hollow crowns in hard rocks of stone and concrete.

The layout of the instrument may vary depending on the class membership. The light perforator is equipped with a horizontal engine, and in heavier models it is positioned vertically.

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Modes of operation of the device

The tool has 3 operating modes:

  1. Drilling
  2. Hit.
  3. Drilling with a blow.

In the first case, the tool needs to be switched to drilling mode without impact. The switch is mounted on the mark with the image of the drill. Then set the last element. The tool is activated by pressing the button. The perforator does not require strong pressure in this mode, the pressure on it should not exceed 5 kg.

The use of drill chucks is incompatible with the modes of drilling under impact and counterclockwise rotation, as there is a possibility of damage and separation of the cartridge from the device.

The built-in shock blocking function helps to prevent such a situation. It is desirable to activate it if you need to make a hole in the metal or wood.

Modes of punch

Modes of punch.

Before using the equipment, it is recommended to check the mode, setting the appropriate one. The device should idle for about 1 minute. It is advisable to monitor the functioning of the gearbox. The included tool should not produce extraneous vibration, noise or knocking. The presence of smoke or burning odor should be alarming.

Impact mode is used if there is a need for chiselling, blasting, or chipping. The switch is mounted on the mark with the image of a hammer. It is recommended to hold the punch firmly with both hands. You can move it to the place of impact after switching on only by applying an effort.

Drilling can be done by moving the toggle switch on the device opposite the drill and hammer mark. Previously, the first element is placed at the point of drilling. Tool include. It is necessary to ensure that the drill is not shifted. Concrete surfaces are dangerous due to collision with reinforcement. Experts recommend to take into account such a probability in advance and take a comfortable position.

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Operating rules

Experts recommend that before you start working with the tool to deal with the principle of installation and removal of replacement parts. Their mounting system depends on the weight of the equipment. It is necessary to install a drill after cleaning its shank and applying a special lubricant on it. Thanks to her, the operation of the device will be softer, and the lifetime of the unit will increase significantly.

The pre-lubrication ring is pushed back. After opening and installing the cartridge, it is necessary to slightly turn and fix and lower the sliding ring. The drill should be securely fixed. You can install and remove removable parts only by making sure that the device is turned off and unplugged. To reduce the level of vibration is recommended to use a soft grip. Pre-fix it.

It is recommended to use protective equipment in work with a perforator - gloves, glasses, earplugs, overalls. Porous, loose materials require hammerless drilling, which allows you to make holes carefully, without contributing to scattering. Materials with increased hardness require the use of special grease, which can be replaced with engine oil if necessary.

More economically, if you have to work with long drills, start drilling with minimally short tools with the same diameter. Shanks require greasing every 180-200 holes. It can be applied to the shanks previously cleaned of dust and debris. Long work with the perforator requires its periodic cooling and cooling of the drills in engine oil or water.

Experts recommend to monitor the heating of the case at the location of the gearbox. Strong heating requires a break to cool the instrument. Professional punchers require breaks for 10 minutes every 30 minutes of work.

The durability of the device depends on compliance with the rules of its operation. To protect the drill from concrete, you can use a special shield. It is necessary to alternate the functioning and rest of the tool regardless of whether the fast rotation was applied or it worked at low revs. At the end of the work, wipe the instrument with a soft cloth, cleaning the air vent from dust. It is advisable to trust the repair of the device to specialists and periodically take it to a service center for prophylaxis. How to work punch, every man should know.

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