Almost all types of work with wood are related to its finishing or preparation of wood for work, use in everyday life. For this phase of work, grinding of wooden parts is mandatory. Fans of tinkering at home or professional craftsmen know how important it is to polish a tree well, round off sharp edges, remove extra millimeters, burrs. A wood sander is an excellent tool for such work.
Scheme of peeler grinding machine for wood.
There are two methods - manual and mechanical. For the first is used emery, it is quite time consuming and long. Emery can be attached to a wooden bar, there are also special holders-pads for it. The second method is carried out with the help of a power tool, it is fast, a minimum of effort is applied. Some work with your own hands can not be done as well as with grinding machines and typewriters.
They make several types of such devices:
Angle Grinder Scheme.
- Angle grinder or grinder. Used for rough grinding of large objects - logs in baths, wooden houses. In the Bulgarian use an emery or similar grinding wheel of different grit.
- Grinding machine with a vibration principle of action. Due to the reciprocating movements of the surface, the soles are polished. The sole is fastened with clips or velcro, has a different shape, vibrations are carried out with a speed of 20,000 movements per minute.
- Orbital or eccentric machine. Its sole rotates simultaneously around its axis and in orbit.
- Belt sander. Used for rough and clean finishing of large surfaces.
Its mechanism is quite simple; these are two rollers or rollers on which a tape of emery rotates. The device of the tape device design is the same for all (the appearance may differ slightly) and consists of:
- working body, it is an abrasive tape and two drums on which it rotates, one - the leader, the other - the slave;
- electric motor;
- the basics of the machine (if it is stationary), bed, desktop.
The speed of such a machine can be changed. The tape is placed both vertically and horizontally.Back to table of contents
The process of making a grinding machine and machine independently
General view of the grinder.
- select and prepare the necessary parts and materials (described above);
- make a stand for the machine, table, basis, fix it;
- mount the tabletop of the desired length (the more, the more material sizes can be processed);
- vertical racks with tensioner and drum are mounted;
- set the motor and drums;
- install an emery tape.
As an example, an ordinary belt grinder of mass production is taken. To make such a device or the like is possible, having spare parts from broken power tools and quite affordable materials. In such a machine, the abrasive belt moves along the base of the device with a rough plane outwards.
For grinding large parts, a grinding machine is made of sufficiently overall dimensions, the principle of its operation is the same as for smaller devices. It can handle parts of about 2 m and more.
For the assembly of such a device, an electric motor with a power of approximately 2 kW and more is needed, the number of revolutions is 1500. You can do without a reducer, since such a motor easily reaches speeds of 20-25 m / s, the size of the drum is 20 cm in diameter.
The device is a circular grinding machine.
The engine can be taken from an old washing machine. The frame is made of a thick iron sheet with parameters 500x180x30 mm. On the one hand it is cut on a milling machine, a place for the motor will be mounted here. Dimensions are: 180x160x10. It is fixed to the bed with the help of three bolts, holes are drilled in it for them. It is necessary to fix the engine tightly so that there is no vibration.
The design consists of two drums, one firmly fixed on the shaft, the second tension, it rotates on bearings around the axis. Adjusting the tension of the grinding surface occurs by its tension in one of the sides. The basis for the machine is made of wood, and better of metal plates. This base plate is made of three sheets of thick plywood, PCB. The second shaft is equipped with a bevel, ensuring a smooth touch of the tape to the edge of the table. The drums are made of wood board (chipboard), take the workpiece and grind them on a lathe to a diameter of 20 mm. It can be done 1-2 mm more in the center, so the tape holds tight. Circular spindles are made of two single row ball bearings.
Emery tape is cut from canvases, its optimum width is 20 cm. It is mounted on the frame (sole) along which it moves. This machine is used for sharpening tools. The length of the table on which such a machine is mounted determines the size of the parts that can be processed on it, therefore the larger it is, the better for materials of different sizes.Back to table of contents
Use of devices: features
Devices of this kind are used for:
The scheme of the belt grinder.
- curved planes with a free grinding surface;
- for flat planes with a fixed table or manual mechanized its movement;
- for the ends of the parts, edges;
- for preparatory processing under the paintwork.
You can construct a grinder, the frame of which will be of wood. Equipping it with three shafts, get an inclined horizontal and vertical working plane. Such a device has a frame made of wood, which effectively reduces vibration. Wood is used like maple, it is quite soft and at the same time durable. The work surface is faced with plastic, but it can be made entirely of wood. It is made so that you can tilt. The length and dimensions of the tape are selected in the appropriate size. It moves along three wooden pulleys. The upper lever with a drum is equipped with a spring, it allows you to tighten the tape. The position of the tape regulate the guide pulley with two adjustable bolts.
In operation, this design is as follows. Motor with a drum of 90 mm rotates another 75 mm in size, and that, in turn, is the third. Rotation is carried out using an abrasive belt. Thus, the device has one vertical grinding surface and one inclined.
The frame is made of six elements, it is attached to the base of plywood with a thickness of 25 mm. Bearing parts and frame are made of wood, this is the base of the bearings, rocking table, rear rack, the upper arm, the plane for the material being processed. Bearing bearings should be placed on a sufficiently large block, it is mounted on a support bearing shaft bearing.
Rollers, drums and pulleys are made of 7 or 8 glued pieces of fiberboard 6 mm thick, cut to the appropriate shape. They have a hole for bearings. The axis on which the drum with the bearings rests is made of metal. For axles, you can take the shafts of broken electric motors, they are flat and already polished. The same design in the two guide pulleys. Bearings are used ball, ordinary, they prevent lateral sliding of the drums, if the tape moves inaccurately.
The design may vary in size parts. For the frame, you can use various materials - metal, plastic.Back to table of contents
Making a device with a grinding wheel
The principle of production is the same. It is also made from the old motor. It is installed on a working surface made of metal or wood. It is important to fix as tightly as possible so that there is no vibration and loosening. An abrasive disk is attached to the shaft from the motor. The latter is easy to make, cut out of wood or metal and stick a layer or several layers of emery paper on it. On the machine it will be possible to grind not only wood, but also other materials, as well as to correct knives, drills and similar tools.
Instead of emery, you can use felt or similar material, then the machine will perform the function of polishing.
It is easy to make such a small-sized machine by taking a broken old hard drive from a computer and an old computer power supply. It is very simple, the disk is disassembled, there is a rotating spindle, a grinding disk is mounted on it and connected to the power supply.
When working with a machine, one should not forget about safety, the motor and open unsafe parts, spinning drums are covered with covers.
Connected to the network, open reason should be well isolated.